Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) употребляется для обозначения действия, совершенного над подлежащим. В страдательном залоге могут употребляться следующие временные формы:

Tense



Active

Passive

Present Simple

У-Vs

Am/is/are + V3

We speak English

English is spoken

Here.

Here.

Tense

Active

Passive

Past Simple

Ved - V2

They built a house in 1995

Was/were + V3

The house was built in 1995.

Future Simple

Will/shall + VI

He will send a letter.

Will/shall be + V3

The letter will be sent.

Present Perfect

Have/has + V3

I have written a dictation.

Have/has been +V3

The dictation has been written.

Past Perfect

Had + V3

They had done the work before we came.

Had been +V3

The work had been done before we came.

Future Perfect

Will/shall have + V3

They will have passed the exam by that time tomorrow.

Will/shall have been + V3

The exam will have been passed by that time tomorrow.

Present

Continuous

Am/is/are + Ving

They are staging a new play.

Am/is/are being + V3

The play is being staged.

Past

Continuous

Was/were + Ving

We were staging a new play when he came.

Was/were being +V3

A new play was being staged when he came.

Tense

Active

Passive

Future

Continuous

Will/shall have been + V3

He will have been working for three hours.

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Present Perfect Continuous

Have/has been Ving

She has been learning English for two years.

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Past Perfect Continuous

Had been + Ving

He had been doing this work for two days.

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Future Perfect Continuous

Will have been + Ving

They will have been doing the work for two hours.

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Страдательный залог употребляется:

• Если неизвестен объект, производивший действие:

This house was built in the 18th century.

• Если необходимо выделить (сделать акцент на) агента (того, кто производит действие): America was discovered by Columbus.

• Если нет необходимости (не нужно) упоминать о лице, совершившем действие: Millions of books are published in our country (by publishing houses).

• Для выражения вежливой формы:

My new dress is spoilt. = You have spoilt my new dress.

При переводе предложений в страдательный залог следует помнить следующее:

• При наличии двух дополнений (прямого и беспредложного косвенного) любое может стать подлежащим пассивного предложения: My brother brought me a new book. — A new book was brought to me. I was brought a new book.

• Подлежащим может стать и предложное косвенное дополнение (предлог остается после глагола):

They laugh at him all the time. — He is laughed at all the time.

Наиболее употребительны глаголы с предлогами, с которыми возможны страдательные обороты: to agree on (upon), to send for, to depend on, to insist on, to listen to, to look at, to speak of (about), to take care of, to rely on, to lose sight of, etc.)

• С глаголами speak, say, tell, announce, inform, expect, believe и т. д. возможны следующие страдательные обороты:

They say she is talented. — It is said that she is talented. — She is said to be talented.




See also: